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India and Pakistan were on the brink of war for Kashmir. There did not seem to be any possibility of negotiating on this issue until tensions had eased. A way to reduce hostility… Focus on other important issues on which cooperation would be possible. Progress in these areas would foster a sense of community between the two nations that, over time, could lead to a settlement of Kashmir. Accordingly, I proposed that India and Pakistan jointly develop a programme to jointly develop and exploit the River System of the Indus Basin, on which both nations depended for irrigation water. With new dams and irrigation canals, the indus and its tributaries could be manufactured in such a way as to provide the additional water needed by each country to increase food production. In that article, I proposed that the World Bank could use its good offices to bring the parties to an agreement and help finance an industrial development programme. [37]:93 However, negotiations quickly came to a halt, without any party being willing to compromise. In 1951, David Lilienthal, former director of the Tennessee Valley Authority and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, traveled to the area to research articles he was to write for Colliers Magazine. He proposed that India and Pakistan work to conclude an agreement for the joint development and management of the Indus water system, possibly with advice and funding from the World Bank.

Eugene Black, then president of the World Bank, agreed. On his proposal, engineers from each country formed a working group in which engineers provide advice to the World Bank. However, political considerations prevented even these technical discussions from reaching an agreement. In 1954, the World Bank proposed a solution to the impasse. After six years of talks, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Pakistani President Mohammad Ayub Khan signed the Indus Water Treaty in September 1960. Each Party shall inform the other Party of the construction projects of engineering works which would concern the other Party and provide data on such works. Annual inspections and data exchange continue unabated by tensions in the subcontinent. The Salal dam was built by mutual agreement between the two countries. [20] The tumultuous project has not been allowed for decades, even after lengthy discussions between India and Pakistan.

[21] In the event of a dispute or disagreement, the Permanent Court of Arbitration (APC) or a neutral technical expert has appealed to arbitration. The judgment of the technical expert was followed for the evacuation of the Baglihar power plant and the PCA shutdown was followed for the evacuation of the Kishanganga hydroelectric power plant. [22] [23] [24] Pakistan claims to have breached the contract for the 850 MW Ratle hydroelectric power plant. [25] India has not yet claimed a violation of Article II of the Inland/Inland SC Republic by Pakistan, although Pakistan uses groundwater for various purposes in the ravi and Sutlej pelvic area, before these rivers eventually turn to Pakistan. Pakistan has also implemented river training activities in this manner in order to reduce river flooding in its territory and to aggravate flooding in the Great Rann of Kutch region of India, contrary to article IV, paragraph 3 bis. [26] Pakistan, which is raising disputes and moving closer to the PCA against Indian projects, could lead to the abolition of the internal/inward movement if its provisions are interpreted in detail by the CPA judgments. [27] In 1948, water rights from the river system were at the center of an Indo-Pakistani water dispute. . .